Patients with calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease, also known as pseudogout, have an 80% higher risk for fracture than individuals who do not have the disease, according to a new analysis.
This trend was driven by wrist fractures, where there was a more than threefold increased risk.
Previous studies identified an association between CPPD and low bone mineral density, and there is growing evidence suggesting that the dysregulation of osteoprotegerin — a molecule that is important in the regulation of osteoclasts — may be associated with early-onset CPPD, noted Sara Tedeschi, MD, MPH, the lead author of the study and head of crystal-induced arthritic diseases at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
However, CPPD’s association with fracture risk has yet to be explored.
In the study, Tedeschi and colleagues used Mass General Brigham electronic health record (EHR) data from 1991 to 2023 to identify 1148 individuals with acute calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystal arthritis. The index date was defined as the first documentation of pseudogout or synovial fluid CPP crystals. These patients were matched to 3730 comparators based on healthcare encounters within 30 days of the index date of a patient with CPPD. Patients were also matched based on the year of their first EHR encounter. Patients with a fracture documented prior to the index date were excluded from the analysis.
The primary outcome was the first fracture of the humerus, knee, wrist, hip, or pelvis, detected via published algorithms using diagnostic and procedural codes.
The research was published on January 14 in Arthritis & Rheumatology.
Although participants were not matched on age or sex, the average age was 73, and most participants were female. In total, 83.1% of participants in the CPPD group and 80.0% of those in the control group were White.
After adjustment for confounding factors including age, sex, comorbidities, and glucocorticoid use, CPPD was associated with an 80% higher risk for any fracture (hazard risk [HR], 1.8). Fracture risk was highest for the wrist (HR, 3.6).
Patients with CPPD had a 40% higher risk to experience a humerus or pelvis fracture and a 30% higher risk for hip fractures, but the results were not statistically significant.
The results were similar for sensitivity analyses that excluded patients who were prescribed glucocorticoids, treatment for osteoporosis, or had a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.
Asked to comment, John FitzGerald, MD, PhD, clinical chief of rheumatology at the University of California, Los Angeles, California, noted that these associations were “convincing and strong. I thought it was a very good study and important work. CPPD is common and osteoporosis is common, so better understanding the connection is important.”
It’s still not clear why the risk for wrist fractures was highest, but Tedeschi had two hypotheses. The researchers were unable to assess for falls in this dataset, but it’s possible that patients with CPPD experiencing joint pain could fall and try to brace themselves with an outstretched arm, leading to a wrist fracture.
CPPD also commonly affects the wrist, “so it’s possible that if CPPD is affecting the wrist and if there is an association between CPPD and low bone density, maybe there’s particularly low bone density at the wrist,” she said.
FitzGerald agreed that both hypotheses were plausible, but “with the retrospective study, there could be a lot of things that are unobserved or unexplained,” he added.
Tedeschi is interested in exploring what could be causing the association with an increased fracture risk in future research.
“I hope this draws attention to the fact that people with CPPD can have related medical problems that are outside of their joints,” added Tedeschi. “Thinking about routine screening for osteopenia and osteoporosis could be a good first step in patients with CPPD.”
The study was funded by grants from the US National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Tedeschi has worked as a consultant for Novartis. FitzGerald reported no relevant financial relationships.
Source link : https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/pseudogout-nearly-doubles-fracture-risk-2024a10002l1?src=rss
Publish date : 2024-02-06 10:10:17
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