Early ileocecal resection is associated with better long-term outcomes compared with anti–tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), based on new real-world evidence.
These findings add weight to previously reported data from the LIR!C trial, suggesting that ileocecal resection should be considered a first-line treatment option for CD, reported principal investigator Kristine H. Allin, MD, PhD, of Aalborg University, Copenhagen.
“The LIR!C randomized clinical trial has demonstrated comparable quality of life with ileocecal resection and inﬂiximab as a ﬁrst-line treatment for limited, nonstricturing ileocecal CD at 1 year of follow-up, and improved outcomes with ileocecal resection on retrospective analysis of long-term follow-up data,” the investigators wrote in Gastroenterology. “However, in the real world, the long-term impact of early ileocecal resection for CD, compared with medical therapy, remains largely unexplored.”
To gather these real-world data, the investigators turned to the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish National Prescription Registry, which included 1,279 individuals diagnosed with CD between 2003 and 2018 who received anti-TNF therapy or underwent ileocecal resection within 1 year of diagnosis. Within this group, slightly less than half underwent ileocecal resection (45.4%) while the remainder (54.6%) received anti-TNF therapy.
The primary outcome was a composite of one or more events: perianal CD, CD-related surgery, systemic corticosteroid exposure, and CD-related hospitalization. Secondary analyses evaluated the relative risks of these same four events as independent entities.
Multifactor-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that patients who underwent ileocecal resection had a 33% lower risk of the composite outcome compared with those who received anti-TNF therapy (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54-0.83).
In the secondary analyses, which examined risks for each component of the composite outcome, the surgery group had a significantly lower risk of CD-related surgery (aHR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.39-0.80) and corticosteroid exposure (aHR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54-0.92), but not perianal CD or CD-related hospitalization.
After 5 years, half of the patients (49.7%) who underwent ileocecal resection were not receiving any treatment for CD. At the same timepoint, a slightly lower percentage of this group (46.3%) had started immunomodulator therapy, while 16.8% started anti-TNF therapy. Just 1.8% of these patients required a second intestinal resection.
“To our knowledge, these are the ﬁrst real-world data in a population-based cohort with long-term follow-up of early ileocecal resection compared with anti-TNF therapy for newly diagnosed ileal and ileocecal CD,” the investigators wrote. “These data suggest that ileocecal resection may have a role as ﬁrst-line therapy in Crohn’s disease management and challenge the current paradigm of reserving surgery for complicated Crohn’s disease refractory or intolerant to medications.”
Corresponding author Manasi Agrawal, MD, of Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, suggested that “validation of our findings in external cohorts [is needed], and understanding of factors associated with improved outcomes following ileocecal resection.”
For clinicians and patients choosing between first-line anti-TNF therapy versus ileocecal resection using currently available evidence, Dr. Agrawal suggested that a variety of factors need to be considered, including disease location, extent of terminal ileum involved, presence of complications such as stricture, fistula, comorbid conditions, access to biologics, financial considerations, and patient preferences.
Benjamin Cohen, MD, staff physician and co-section head and clinical director for inflammatory bowel diseases in the department of gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition at Cleveland Clinic, called this “an important study” because it offers the first real-world evidence to support the findings from the LIR!C trial.
Dr. Cohen agreed with Dr. Agrawal that more work is needed to determine which patients benefit most from early ileocecal resection, although he suggested that known risk factors for worse outcomes — such as early age at diagnosis, penetrating features of disease, or perianal disease — may increase strength of surgical candidacy.
Still, based on the “fairly strong” body of data now available, he suggested that all patients should be educated about first-line ileocecal resection, as it is “reasonable” approach.
“It’s always important to present surgery as a treatment option,” Dr. Cohen said in an interview. “We don’t want to think of surgery as a last resort, or a failure, because that really colors it in a negative light, and then that ultimately impacts patients’ quality of life, and their perception of outcomes.”
The study was supported by the Danish National Research Foundation. The investigators disclosed no conflicts of interest. Dr. Cohen disclosed consulting and speaking honoraria from AbbVie.
This article originally appeared on MDedge.com, part of the Medscape Professional Network.
Source link : https://www.medscape.com/s/viewarticle/real-world-evidence-early-ileocecal-resection-outperforms-2023a1000ume?src=rss
Publish date : 2023-12-07 21:40:51
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