A history of cancer is an independent predictor of major cardiovascular events in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty. Cancer should be considered a new cardiovascular risk factor in primary and secondary prevention, according to a study presented at the 2023 American Heart Association Congress in Philadelphia.
“We believe that this finding should, in the future, at least at the time of discharge or the end of oncologic treatment, [encourage] the pursuit of much more demanding cardiovascular primary prevention goals than in the general population, for example, equating it to the situation of a patient with diabetes or chronic renal failure,” said lead author Renzo Melchiori, MD, a cardiologist at the University Hospital Austral in Pilar, Argentina.
The researchers also advocate for intensifying cardiovascular control measures in secondary prevention for these patients, reconsidering goals, and ensuring compliance with prescribed pharmacological regimens and healthy lifestyle habits.
“Previously, when a patient had oncological pathology, thinking about associated cardiovascular risk seemed somewhat superfluous. But today, oncological diseases are treated so effectively, increasing survival and life expectancy, that we begin to focus on what happens with the arteries of these patients after treatment,” said Melchiori.
Higher Incidence Density
The retrospective analysis included 937 patients of both sexes aged 18 years and older who underwent coronary angioplasty for acute coronary syndrome between 2008 and 2022 at a university hospital. Of these participants, 89 (9.5%) had a history of cancer, with a median time since oncologic diagnosis of around 2 years for solid and hematologic tumors. Most participants had treated and resolved cancer.
Over a median follow-up of 45 months (range, 14-72 months), the cumulative incidence rates of a major cardiovascular event (nonfatal stroke, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, or new angioplasty) were 22.2% (155/698) and 28.4% (25/88) in the groups without and with a history of cancer, respectively. The incidence density was significantly higher in the group with an oncologic history than in the group without such a history: 0.78 events/100 patients/month vs 0.48 events/100 patients/month (P = .01).
Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a higher probability of a major cardiovascular event in the group of patients with cancer or a history of cancer (P = .0086). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, cancer history was an independent predictor of major cardiovascular events adjusted for other risk factors such as age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and family history (hazard ratio, 1.66; P = .025).
Melchiori clarified that the increased incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with cancer or a history of cancer cannot be attributed to differences in percutaneous intervention or the indication or compliance of post-treatment pharmacological therapy.
In addition, the specialist acknowledged that due to the sample size, discrimination by cancer type, disease stage, or therapeutic strategies couldn’t be performed. A subanalysis, which has not been presented, indicated that the effect could not be explained solely by the application of radiotherapy or chemotherapy in the 90 days before angioplasty — two factors that cause arterial inflammation.
Intensifying Prevention Measures
Two independent experts told the Medscape Spanish edition that the new study is “interesting” and reinforces the close connection between oncologic and cardiovascular pathology.
Andrés Daniele, MD, cardiologist and president of the Argentine Cardio-Oncology Association, a local chapter of the International Cardio-Oncology Society, emphasized that the study “reiterates an observation seen in other works: A higher rate of atherosclerotic pathology and cardiovascular events in patients with a history of cancer. And that has a reason to be: Both pathologies present common risk factors, and on the other hand, there is greater endothelial dysfunction secondary to the inflammatory syndrome and oncologic therapies.”
“There needs to be a continuum in the intensification of measures in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention in cancer survivors, whether in remission or with chronic disease. We need to be very aggressive in managing risk factors and insist that patients who have had a cardiovascular event enter cardiovascular rehabilitation therapies,” said Daniele, who also heads the Cardio-Oncology Department at the centenary Roffo Institute of Oncology at the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
The study provides a valuable contribution because “we need to understand the epidemiology and natural history of patients with cancer at risk of developing cardiovascular complications to implement personalized cardiovascular prevention strategies,” said Teresa López Fernández, MD, cardiologist, coordinator of the Cardio-Oncology Program at La Paz University Hospital in Madrid, member of the Cardio-Oncology Working Group of the Spanish Society of Cardiology, member of the board of the International Cardio-Oncology Society, and cochair of the first clinical practice guidelines in cardio-oncology of the European Society of Cardiology.
“We have to be aware that perhaps we should not guide ourselves in these patients with the usual risk stratification scores as cancer or cardiotoxic treatment are not included as variables. However, they require our attention and effort to improve their quality and quantity of life, avoiding potentially preventable cardiovascular events that could negatively impact the survival achieved thanks to advances in cancer treatments,” said López.
Melchiori and Daniele declared no relevant economic conflicts of interest. López reported relationships with Daiichi Sankyo, Almirall España, Janssen-Cilag, Bayer, Roche, Philips, and Incyte.
This article was translated from the Medscape Spanish edition.
Source link : https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/cancer-identified-new-cardiovascular-risk-factor-2024a10001sy?src=rss
Publish date : 2024-01-25 10:04:01
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